Everything to Know about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

The eye condition has age-related macular degeneration that impairs central vision. This implies that macular degeneration patients cannot perceive objects that are right in front of them. Most cases of this prevalent age-related eye disease affect adults over 50.

The eye condition known as macular degeneration impairs central vision. This implies that macular degeneration patients cannot perceive objects that are right in front of them. Most cases of this prevalent age-related eye disease affect adults over 50.

Your macula, or core portion of your retina, results from macular degeneration. The retina, the rear of the eye, is responsible for central vision. The macular degeneration does not result in total blindness. They have good peripheral vision and can perceive objects on the sides.

Do You Think Age-Related Macular Degeneration Effect Both Eyes?

Different degrees of macular degeneration might appear in one or both eyes. The phrase “age-related macular degeneration” (AMD) refers to the increased risk of macular degeneration with ageing. However, several circumstances can cause macular degeneration to manifest in people at earlier ages. Age is not the only risk factor for macular degeneration; other considerations include:

  • Manage the overweight condition
  • Choose a proper diet with saturated fat
  • Smoking
  • Eating a lot of fat, especially saturated fat
  • Having hypertension or elevated blood pressure
  • White portion

Types of Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration comes in two varieties: moist and dry. Have a look at the types of macular degeneration:

Dry (atrophic) macular degeneration

The dry type of macular degeneration affects around 90% of patients. It appears as drusen, microscopic yellow protein deposits that grow under the macula. The accumulated deposits thin and dry the macula.

When macular degeneration is dry, vision loss usually happens gradually. Most people retain their central vision partially. The moist form may occasionally transition from the dry form.

Wet (exudative) macular degeneration

When aberrant blood vessels form underneath your retina and macula, it is known as wet (exudative) macular degeneration. Via the blood vessels, fluid and blood loosen. The fluids’ oozing quality is “exudative.”

Your macula bulges due to fluid accumulation, and there might be patches of darkness in your field of view. Approximately 10% of cases of macular degeneration are moist, and this kind is more serious. Complete loss of centre vision can occur very quickly.

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Stages of Macular Degeneration

There are three phases of dry macular degeneration. Vision loss is one of the symptoms that frequently doesn’t show up until later. Nonetheless, your eye care professional can see symptoms during an examination.

  • Primary: Your eyesight is unaffected even if your macula changes.
  • Secondary: There may be wavy or fuzzy vision.
  • Final: The central vision is unsuccessful.

Causes and Symptoms of Macular Degeneration

There are various types of symptoms and causes of macular degeneration:


A hereditary eye condition may be macular degeneration. However, it can also strike those who have never had the illness in their family. It is known as macular degeneration when the macula at the back of your eye begins to deteriorate for no apparent reason. Age-related macular degeneration correlates with advancing age. Macular degeneration unrelated to ageing based on the following:

  • Head injury
  • Diabetes
  • Infections
  • Lack of diet with nutrients

Symptoms of Macular Degeneration

Your eye’s macula aids in transmitting pictures from the optic nerve to the brain. If you have macula damage, your brain cannot interpret or decipher the images your eyes perceive. Many macular degeneration patients have no symptoms at first until the condition worsens. You could encounter:

  • Blurred and low vision
  • Areas are black or blank in your field of view.
  • Straight lines that appear to be wavy or curved. If you see lines that you know should be straight but instead appear wavy or bent, contact an eye care professional.
  • Having worse vision in dimly lit areas.
  • Areas are black or blank in your field of view.

Tests and Diagnosis

You can check the diagnosis and test for macular degeneration.


Annual eye exams are crucial since macular degeneration seldom exhibits symptoms in its early stages. They will assist your doctor in diagnosing the illness early and initiating therapy at the optimal time. Your eye doctor examines your retina and macula to look for any abnormalities during an examination. Your doctor could request one or more of the following tests:

  • Amsler grid test: An Amsler grid is a grid of straight lines with a large dot in the centre. Your healthcare provider may ask you to identify any regions that look wavy, fuzzy, or broken and any grid lines. Significant distortion might indicate a deteriorating disease or severe macular degeneration. This test may be used at home to monitor your symptoms and notice any changes.
  • Fluorescein angiography: A specialised camera tracks the dye passing through your eye’s blood vessels. The images may show any leaks beneath your macula.
  • Dilated eye exam: When you use eye drops, your pupils enlarge. After administering the drops and dilation, your healthcare professional will use a unique lens to examine the interior of your eyes.
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT): This imaging device captures the retina and macula of your eye in fine-grained photographs. It is neither invasive nor uncomfortable. All you must do is stare into a lens as the device snaps images.
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA): This diagnostic instrument uses OCT scanning equipment and laser light reflection rather than fluorescein dye. It creates three-dimensional pictures of the blood flow via your eye in seconds.


Macular degeneration has no known treatment. Early therapy initiation can lessen the severity of symptoms and reduce the disease’s course. Despite effective therapy, problems frequently recur. Treatments include nutritional supplements, prescription drugs, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and laser therapy, depending on the sickness. The ARMD treatment and the diagnosis have basic functionalities.

What are the nutritional supplements for dry age-related macular degeneration?

Age-related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS and AREDS2) discover that the mix of vitamins and minerals may slow the advancement of dry AMD. Ingredients in AREDS supplements include:

  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Zeaxanthin
  • Lutein
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E


There are some common medicines for age-related macular degeneration:

Ranibizumab (Lucentis®)
Aflibercept (Eylea®)
Bevacizumab (Avastin®)
Brolucizumab (Beovu®)
Faricimab-svoa (VABYSMO®)

Bottom Line

Age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, is the most common cause of visual loss. Although AMD doesn’t result in total blindness, losing central vision might make daily chores more difficult. The most prevalent kind of macular degeneration generates dry macular degeneration, which results in progressive visual loss. Treatments for macular degeneration work effectively.

Your eye care professional can recommend treatments to help maintain your eyesight. Reading helps with using a magnifying glass or a pair of glasses. You can also request information about supporting services from your provider.

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